# Adaptive Multi-path Publication Forwarding in the Publiy Distributed Publish/Subscribe Systems

University of Toronto, 2011.
Pages 1-20.

## Abstract

Fine-grained filtering capabilities of content-based Publish/Subscribe (P/S) overlays often lead to scenarios in which publications pass through brokers with no local matching subscribers. Processing of messages at these {\em pure forwarding} brokers amounts to inefficient use of resources and should ideally be avoided. Accomplishing this goal requires a rethought of how the P/S overlays are maintained. In this paper, we develop an approach that mitigates this problem by building and adaptively maintaining a highly connected overlay mesh superimposed atop a low connectivity {\em primary} overlay network. The primary overlay network can use existing P/S technologies to provide basic forwarding routes. The mesh structure provides a rich set of alternative forwarding choices which can be used to bypass pure forwarding brokers to a large extent. Moreover, the overlay mesh provides unique opportunities for load balancing and congestion avoidance. Through extensive experimental evaluation on a cluster and Planetlab, we compare the performance of our approach with that of conventional P/S algorithms as baseline. Our results indicate that our approach improves publication delivery delay and lowers network traffic while incurring negligible computational and bandwidth overhead. Furthermore, compared to the baseline, we observed significant gains of up to $115\%$ in terms of system throughput.

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